Benchmarking and Improving Dimensional Quality on Modular Construction Projects – A Case Study


  • Christopher Rausch University of Waterloo
  • Chloe Edwards University of Waterloo
  • Carl Haas University of Waterloo



Modular Construction, Dimensional Quality, Laser Scanning, Building Information Models, Continuous Improvement, Dimensional Tolerances, Rework Avoidance


Dimensional quality plays a key role in project success for modular construction. While approaches exist for reducing rework associated with dimensional variability in traditional construction (i.e., onsite resolution), more proactive approaches must be employed during offsite production of modules. Unfortunately, the stricter dimensional quality demands in modular construction are not yet completely addressed in existing guidelines or studies. As such, contractors often must resort to use of reactive measures to reduce rework. This paper bridges this gap by demonstrating how to implement continuous benchmarking and improvement of dimensional quality by comparing as-built and nominal 3D geometric data across modular construction projects. A case study is presented for two nearly identical modular construction projects, which are carried out in succession. The first project is used to quantify and benchmark key impacts on overall dimensional quality, while strategic improvements are introduced in the second project to improve quality and reduce rework. The results of this study demonstrate how contractors can achieve adequate dimensional quality and reduce rework on successive modular construction projects.