Combined Application of 4D BIM Schedule and an Immersive Virtual Reality on a Modular Project: UNLV Solar Decathlon Case


  • Rajarshi Ghimire University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Seungtaek Lee University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Jin Ouk Choi University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Jin-Yeol Lee University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Yong-Cheol Lee Louisiana State University



Off-site construction, Immersive virtual reality, 4D schedule, Solar Decathlon, Industrialized construction


The use of a 4D schedule as technological advancement has brought significant improvement to the planning and execution of construction projects, through visualizing step-wise construction progress, following a sequence of pre-planned activities, and finalizing a baseline schedule with necessary changes. Moreover, the application of immersive virtual reality (IVR) to create an interactive 4D BIM schedule of a planned structure has made it possible to create a detailed plan of any construction project. Because of these benefits, the use of 4D schedules and immersive virtual reality in the construction industry has increased, leading to improved planning and execution. However, past studies have given little attention to the applications of such technologies on modular projects. Thus, this research applied a 4D schedule, along with immersive virtual reality, on a modular project, and verified their benefits and effectiveness. The results showed that most of the participants who experienced a 4D BIM schedule, along with immersive virtual reality (4D/IVR), strongly agreed that it is an easy and straightforward way to visualize the project, understand the schedule, and find any errors. Moreover, while fewer than half of the participants scheduled the assembly sequence correctly with conventional schedule and 2D drawings, almost all of them sequenced the assembly successfully with 4D/IVR. Based on the findings, this research concludes that the implementation of a 4D BIM schedule, along with virtual reality technology, can enhance the fabrication and assembly performance of modules.